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You’re correct that HIV-1 represents the significant majority of HIV infections across the world. Group M is the biggest group, followed by O.
The p24 antigen / antibody HIV test (also known as the 4th generation HIV test) detects p24 antigens for HIV-1 (Groups M and O), and antibodies for HIV-2. The p24 test does not reflect Groups N and P as they are very rare and not been found outside of Africa.
If you are testing after a potential exposure that you had in Canada, you can feel confident in the p24 test will reflect any strains you could have been exposed to.
If you are testing after a potential exposure you had in Africa, then you may want to seek additional testing.
Please let us know if you have any other questions.
This answer was posted on April 26, 2018